Blockchain technology can be described a digital ledger that consists of a growing list of records – blocks – linked using cryptography. Each block contains information such as a timestamp, transaction data, and more, that can be permanently verified. While data on these blocks isn’t unalterable, blockchains are resistant to modification, especially if decentralized.

Blockchain technology was invented by the person or group behind the Satoshi Nakamoto pseudonym, which was behind the creation of the first cryptocurrency: Bitcoin. It allows the cryptocurrency to be decentralized and solves the double-spending problem without the need for a trusted authority. As a result, Bitcoin transactions are peer-to-peer.

This type of technology has over the years been deployed for a number of uses, including tracking the supply chain of supermarkets. Various cryptocurrency naysayers argue blockchain tech has potential.

On this page you'll find news related to this technology.

Buenos Aires Rolls Out Blockchain-Based Digital ID for Storing Official Documents

According to The Block, the Buenos Aires city government is launching a blockchain-based digital ID service named QuarkID. This service aims to securely store official documents such as marriage and death certificates. The technology behind this service is built on Matter Labs’ zkSync Era rollup and incorporates elements from the Argentina-based startup Extrimian. As Brian […]

Coinbase’s Jesse Pollak Discusses Base, Decentralized Apps, and the Future of Blockchain

Coinbase’s Jesse Pollak, Head of Protocols, recently sat down with Cointelegraph’s Andrew Singer at Messari’s Mainnet conference in New York City on 20 September 2023. The interview covered a wide range of topics, including Coinbase’s relatively new blockchain, Base, the potential of decentralized applications (DApps), and the future of blockchain technology. When asked about Coinbase’s […]

Pantera Capital on Three Upcoming Catalysts That Could Revitalize the Digital Asset Market

In its most recent “Blockchain Letter,” Pantera Capital outlines several major factors that the firm believes could significantly influence the digital asset market in the near future. According to Pantera Capital, although institutional interest in digital assets has diminished over the past year, upcoming events could reignite investor enthusiasm. One of the most noteworthy developments, […]

Former SEC Lawyer John Reed Stark Calls Crypto ‘A Modern-Day Emperor Has No Clothes’

Earlier today, John Reed Stark, a digital regulatory compliance expert with 15 years as an SEC enforcement attorney, shared an exhaustive critique of the NFT market and the broader crypto industry on social media platform X (formerly known as Twitter). Stark likened the NFT market to “Pet Rocks on Steroids” and cautioned that the crypto […]

Citi Advances Institutional Finance with Blockchain-Based Token Services

Citi Treasury and Trade Solutions (TTS) has introduced a new service called Citi Token Services, designed to enhance institutional clients’ cash management and trade finance capabilities. Utilizing blockchain and smart contract technologies, the service aims to integrate tokenized deposits and smart contracts into Citi’s global network. Citi is a leading banking partner for institutions with […]

Visa’s Head of Crypto on the Future of Blockchain Technology

In a recent blog post, Cuy Sheffield, the Head of Crypto at Visa, explored the transformative potential of blockchain technology. Drawing parallels between the early skepticism surrounding the internet and the current state of blockchain, Sheffield outlined what he sees as Visa’s ongoing initiatives and future plans in leveraging blockchain for global settlements, cross-border disbursements, […]

Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong Shares Top 10 Crypto Startup Ideas for Entrepreneurs

Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong has penned a blog post outlining his top 10 startup ideas for the burgeoning crypto industry. Armstrong believes that the crypto space is still in its early stages and presents a golden opportunity for entrepreneurs. He emphasizes that while Coinbase has the resources to build various crypto projects, they can’t cover […]

How Blockchain is Transforming Payments: Insights from Ripple’s Brendan Berry

Earlier today, Ripple released a video (which is part of a series called “Crypto in One Minute”) featuring Brendan Berry, who is the the head of payments product management. Berry identifies three core concepts that need improvement in the payments sector: Cost, Speed, and Reliability. Berry contrasts the experience of making payments within a country […]

DLT and Digital Assets Surge: Insights from Citi’s Securities Services Evolution 2023 Report

The Securities Services Evolution 2023 report by Citi Securities Services provides a comprehensive overview of the ongoing transformation in the financial industry. From being on the cusp of change in 2021 to the execution-focused approach in 2023, the industry is undergoing significant shifts. A major highlight is the industry’s preparation to reduce a day from […]

Visa Proposes a Way for Users to Pay Blockchain Gas Fees Using Visa Cards

Financial giant Visa has proposed a method that allows users to pay blockchain gas fees using their Visa cards. Blockchain transactions, especially on platforms like Ethereum, require users to pay gas fees. These fees are essentially the cost of processing a transaction on the blockchain. Traditionally, these fees are paid using the native cryptocurrency of […]

Ripple and FPC Report: Crypto-Enabled Solutions Set to Revolutionize Global Payments

The payments landscape is undergoing rapid transformation, with digital currencies playing a pivotal role, according to a recent report by Ripple and the Faster Payments Council (FPC). The report “Transforming the Way Money Moves” explores the potential of cryptocurrencies in the evolving payments ecosystem. The report emphasizes that the payments ecosystem is evolving quickly, with […]

Coinbase Protocols Lead Forecasts 8 Billion People On-Chain in the Next Decade

Coinbase’s protocols lead, Jesse Pollak, recently shared his optimistic outlook on the future of crypto adoption at the EthCC event in Paris. Pollak is responsible for Coinbase’s efforts regarding Base, the exchange’s Ethereum-focused layer-2 blockchain unveiled in February. He stated that the company’s goal with Base is to increase the number of things people can […]

Android’s Google Play Store: Bridging the Gap Between Blockchain and the Masses

On 12 July 2023, Joseph Mills, Group Product Manager at Google Play, announced a noteworthy policy update. The aim is to balance the growing demand for innovative blockchain-based applications and the platform’s commitment to user safety. This change in stance will lead to a significant upsurge in engaging digital experiences, including those powered by Non-Fungible […]

Blockchain Association on Why SEC Chair Gensler ‘Must Recuse Himself From Digital Asset Enforcement Decisions’

Jake Chervinsky, Chief Policy Officer at Blockchain Association, has shared a series of insights expressing concerns about the impartiality of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Chair Gary Gensler in relation to digital asset enforcement decisions. Chervinsky says that these concerns stem from Chair Gensler’s stance that all digital assets, except Bitcoin, are securities. According […]

Canadian Parliamentary Committee Embraces Blockchain Technology

According to a blog post published by Coinbase on 28 June 2023, the Canadian House of Commons Parliamentary Standing Committee on Industry and Technology (INDU) recently released a comprehensive report exploring the potential of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency use cases in Canada. The report, which includes 16 recommendations, acknowledges the value and utility of blockchain […]

Cardano Foundation Exec Calls for End to ‘Ultimate Blockchain’ Debate

The ongoing debate about the ‘ultimate blockchain’ should cease, according to Mel McCann, Vice President of Engineering at the Cardano Foundation. McCann believes that the appropriateness of a blockchain depends on the specific use cases of individual projects. Speaking at the World Token Summit in Dubai, McCann shared his insights with Cointelegraph reporter Ezra Reguerra […]

Ripple and Peersyst Power Colombia’s Blockchain Revolution

Ripple, a leading enterprise in blockchain and crypto solutions, has announced a partnership with Colombia’s Central Bank, Banco de la República, to explore and implement use cases for blockchain technology. This collaboration is part of the third phase of blockchain experimentation led by The Ministry of Information and Communications Technologies (MinTIC). The pilot program will […]

VC Firm Partner Explains Why AI’s Success Does Not Imply Crypto’s Failure

Chris Burniske, a former ARK Invest analyst and current partner at venture capital firm Placeholder, recently shared his bullish perspective on the future of crypto and AI investments in a Twitter thread. Burniske drew a vivid comparison between investors chasing popular trends and mosquitoes attracted to light, urging investors to make informed decisions rather than […]

Blockchain Analytics: The Key to Institutional Crypto Adoption

Institutional interest in digital assets is growing, and with it, the demand for on-chain analytics platforms. These tools are invaluable to compliance experts, investigators, and regulators who need to understand the patterns and entities involved in cryptocurrency transactions. Tom Robinson, co-founder and chief scientist at analytics firm Elliptic, and Eray Akartuna, a senior cryptocurrency threat […]

Australia’s Top Stock Exchange Says No to Blockchain

The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) drops blockchain tech in a dramatic twist to its software overhaul saga. According to a Cointelegraph report published earlier today (May 19, 2023), the ASX has decided to discard its ambitious plans of using blockchain technology to rebuild its software platform. This marks a considerable about-face for the concept, which […]

Is Your City One of the Most Important Crypto Hubs in the World? Greenfield Capital Has the Answer

In a compelling new research report by Greenfield Capital, a European firm specializing in crypto investments, a comprehensive exploration of the current state of the crypto landscape in Europe has been presented. According to Greenfield’s blog post, “State of European Crypto Report,” was conducted with a unique approach that involved analytical assessments and the perspectives […]

Crypto’s Appeal for Institutions Is Far from Over, Says Cantor Fitzgerald’s Elliot Han

Institutional interest in crypto is maturing, with a fresh focus on diverse use cases, says Elliot Han, a Managing Director and Head of Technology Equity Capital Markets at global financial services firm Cantor Fitzgerald. Han shared his perspective with CNBC’s “Crypto World” during the Digital Assets Week conference in San Francisco. Han emphasized the evolving interest […]

Liechtenstein’s Blockchain Act: A Beacon for Crypto Businesses

Small in size but big on innovation, Liechtenstein is marking its territory in the blockchain and crypto sphere. An article by Cointelegraph published earlier today reports that Liechtenstein, which is snuggled between Switzerland and Austria, has grabbed the attention of the international and European crypto communities since the industry’s early days. The Cointelegraph report points […]

Crypto Mom Criticizes SEC’s Regulatory Reach: ‘Solving Nonexistent Problems’

The crypto world is debating the SEC’s proposed amendments to exchange regulations, which could impose additional burdens on crypto platforms and hamper innovation, according to Commissioner Hester M. Peirce (aka “Crypto Mom”). The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) announced on April 14 that it is reopening the comment period and providing supplemental information for […]

Tempting Cryptocurrency Enthusiasts: A Smartphone to Challenge Apple and Samsung?

The worlds of cryptocurrencies and smartphones converge with Solana Mobile’s intriguing new product. According to a report by CoinDesk, Solana Mobile, a subsidiary of Solana Labs, will publicly launch its blockchain-integrated Android smartphone, Saga, on May 8. The phone, which is already shipping to customers who pre-ordered it, is designed to make it easy and […]

‘State of Crypto 2023’ Report Reveals Exciting Bullish Trends in the Crypto Industry

A16z’s “State of Crypto 2023” report sheds light on the optimistic future of the crypto space. Silicon Valley-based venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz (“a16z”), founded by Marc Andreessen and Ben Horowitz in 2009, supports innovative entrepreneurs in various technology sectors. With $35B in assets under management, a16z invests across multiple stages and industries. On April […]

$ADA: Cardano Foundation CEO on ‘Very Productive Trip to London’ and Meetings With British MPs

Cardano Foundation CEO Frederik Gregaard recently traveled to London, where he engaged with influential policymakers and stakeholders invested in the UK’s blockchain future. The Cardano Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and promoting the Cardano blockchain ecosystem. Its primary goals are to drive the adoption of the Cardano platform, shape legislation and […]

California Embraces Blockchain and NFTs: Pioneering DMV Tokenization Project for Vehicle Titles

In a groundbreaking move, California’s Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is set to transform vehicle title management using blockchain technology. California’s Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is looking to revolutionize its vehicle title and transfer management system by tokenizing more than 14 million automobiles registered in the state, according to a research report by Bank […]

SkyBridge Capital Founder’s Vision: Moving from Enforcement to Holistic Crypto Support

In an op-ed piece published on CNBC, Former White House Director of Communications Anthony Scaramucci, who is the founder and managing partner of global alternative investment firm SkyBridge Capital, explores the ongoing debate surrounding the regulation of the blockchain and cryptocurrency industries. He believes the “too little, too much, or just right” approach to regulation is overly […]

World’s Largest Asset Manager Continues ‘To Explore the Digital Assets Ecosystem’

Last week, Larry Fink, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of BlackRock, the world’s largest asset manager by AUM, wrote about crypto as part of his annual Chairman’s Letter to Investors. BlackRock, which was founded in 1988, started with just eight people working in one room. It made its Initial Public Offering on the New York […]

What is Base, Coinbase’s New Layer 2 Network?

One of the world’s leading cryptocurrency exchanges, Coinbase, revealed in February 2023 new product called “Base” —a new layer 2 solution testnet for Ethereum, built on OP Stack, a development kit used by layer-2 Optimism. Base was announced during the ETHDenver, a community-led event in which various crypto companies, startups and leading figures in the […]

JPMorgan Chase CEO on Bitcoin: How Do We Know Supply Is Capped at 21 Million?

On Thursday (19 January 2023), Jamie Dimon, the Chairman of the Board and CEO of global finances services firm JPMorgan Chase & Co., shared his thoughts on blockchain and crypto during an interview on CNBC’s “Squawk Box” from the World Economic Forum (16-20 January 2023) in Davos, Switzerland. Dimon, who likes blockchain technology, but is a […]

Binance Research on Key Themes for Crypto in 2023

Binance Research’s analysts are keeping a close eye on a number of developments that might have a significant impact on the cryptocurrency market in 2023. In 2023, according to a recently-released report (“Full-Year Review 2022 & Themes for 2023”) by Binance Research, macroeconomics will be the driver of returns for risk assets. Whether macro factors […]

Ripple Executives Offer Their Crypto Predictions for 2023

FinTech Ripple expects 2023 to be the year when cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies genuinely come into their own. According to Ripple’s blog post, they expect the industry to shift away from speculative businesses toward ones that employ crypto technologies to address actual problems and unfulfilled consumer demands.  Moreover, they foresee a rise in the use of non-fungible tokens […]

JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon: ‘Crypto Tokens Are Like Pet Rocks’

Earlier this week, Jamie Dimon, the Chairman of the Board and CEO of global finances services firm JPMorgan Chase & Co., shared his thoughts on crypto during an interview on CNBC’s “Squawk Box”. On 6 December 2022, Dimon, who is a well-known harsh critic of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, was asked by co-anchor Andrew Ross […]

Institutions Coming to Replace Lost Retail Investors, Says SVP of $1.5T Asset Manager

Recently, Sandy Kaul, a Senior VP at Franklin Templeton, shared her thoughts on blockchain technology and crypto, and more specifically on institutional adoption. Franklin Resources, Inc. [NYSE: BEN) “is an American multinational holding company that, together with its subsidiaries, is referred to as Franklin Templeton; it is a global investment firm founded in New York […]

Nobel Prize-Winning Economist Says Blockchain Technology Is a Waste of Time and Energy

On Thursday (1 December 2022), a Nobel Prize-Winning economist expressed how he really feels about blockchain technology in an opinion piece for the New York Times (NYT). That economist is Paul Krugman, who is “Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New […]

President Putin Calls for an Independent Blockchain-Powered Global Payment Network

Russian President Vladimir Putin has called for a blockchain-based international payment system in light of Western economic sanctions being imposed on his country.  According to a report by Cointelegraph, President Putin made his comments at the International AI Journey Conference in Moscow. During the event, which was organized by Russia’s largest bank Sberbank, Putin criticized […]

IOG and University of Edinburgh Launch Blockchain Decentralisation Research Project

Recently, Aggelos Kiayias, Chair in Cyber Security and Privacy at University of Edinburgh and the Chief Scientist at Input Output Global (“IOG”), the blockchain technology firm behind Cardano’s R&D, introduced the Edinburgh Decentralisation Index (EDI) project. IOG CTO Romain Pellerin called EDI, which is designed to measure “decentralization of blockchain networks beyond counting the number […]

$BTC: Messina Group CEO Ready To Bet His Porsche That Bitcoin Is Going Back to $60K

On Wednesday (October 26), Jim Messina, the CEO of consulting firm The Messina Group, explained why he is so bullish on crypto in general and on Bitcoin in particular. The former White House Deputy Chief of Staff made his comments about crypto during an interview on Fox Business (when Bitcoin was trading around $20,000). Regarding […]

S&P Global Exec: ‘We Think the Tokenization of Everything Is Going To Happen’

Earlier this week, Chuck Mounts, Chief DeFi Officer at S&P Global (the parent company of S&P Global Ratings), spoke to crypto advocte Scott Melker about the tokenization of everything. Here is how Gemini’s Cryptopedia explains tokenization: “Generally speaking, a token is a representation of a particular asset or utility. Within the context of blockchain technology, […]

Mastercard Exec: Crypto Has ‘Potential To Transform the Financial System’s Infrastructure’

Recently, Raj Dhamodharan, Executive Vice President of Blockchain / Digital Asset Products and Digital Partnerships at Mastercard, explained what his firm is doing to unlock crypto’s “potential to transform the financial system’s infrastructure”. In a blog post published on Wednesday (October 12), Dhamodharan gave examples of things that Mastercard is doing to “turn cryptocurrencies into an […]

Cardano ($ADA) Founder on the Importance of Crypto-Friendly Regulatory Frameworks

On Thursday (October 13), Charles Hoskinson, Co-Founder and CEO of Input Output Global (aka “IOG”), the blockchain technology firm behind Cardano’s R&D, explained the importance of having regulation that appreciates the benefits offered by cryptocurrencies. According to a report by The Daily Hodl, the IOG CEO said: “It’s necessary for us to get [to] the […]

Pantera Capital CEO Remains Optimistic on the Future of Blockchain

Despite the current economic climate, crypto investment firm Pantera Capital CEO and Co-CIO Dan Morehead believes that blockchain development will continue unaffected. The VC is confident in the long-term potential of blockchain technology, even though the market may not be feeling this way at present, and according to a report by Cointelegraph, during an interview […]

Ava Labs President John Wu Says ‘Real-World Assets Are Coming to the Blockchain’

John Wu, President of blockchain startup Ava Labs — which develops the software for the Avalanche ($AVAX) blockchain — recently shared his thoughts on asset tokenization. According to a report by The Daily Hodl, during an interview with Real Vision CEO Raoul Pal, Wu explained why he finds the tokenization of real assets using blockchain technology one of the […]

SWIFT Exploring Use of Blockchain for Removing ‘Friction in Corporate Actions’

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), a Belgian cooperative society providing services related to the execution of financial transactions and payments between banks worldwide, is exploring the use of blockchain technology. On September 13, SWIFT announced that it it is working with “seven securities player” (such as American Century Investments, Citi, Vanguard and […]

How to Enable the Trust Wallet DApp Browser: A Step-by-Step Guide

The Trust Wallet DApp Browser is a Web3 browser from Trust Wallet —a popular non-custodial wallet for storing cryptocurrency and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). The browser allows users to interact with all decentralized applications (DApp) on various networks in a seamless fashion. In this article, we’ll teach you how to enable the Trust Wallet DApp Browser […]

Google’s Parent Company Has Been Increasing Its Investment in the Crypto Space

A research report, which provides interesting insights on how the top 100 public companies in the U.S. are investing in the blockchain/crypto space, has recently been released. The report (titled: “Top 100 Public Companies Investing in Blockchain & Crypto Companies”) was created by Blockdata, which is a subsidiary of CB Information Services. Blockdata’s blog post […]

New Legislation Calls for All Gold Mined in Brazil to Be Tokenized on a Blockchain

A new bill in progress in Brazil calls for all gold mined in the country to be tokenized on a blockchain, as a way to bring transparency to the sector and make irregular mining difficult. The project was presented by Federal Representative Joenia Wapichana, who highlights that about half of the metal mining in the […]

Cardano Founder on How Blockchain Technology Could Improve Nation-Station Governance

On Thursday (July 14), Charles Hoskinson, who is Co-Founder and CEO of IO Global (aka “IOG”, formerly known as “IOHK”), the company responsible for Cardano’s research and development, talked about how blockchain technology could transform the future of nation-state governance. The IOG CEO’s comments were made during an interview earlier today with Brian McGleenon on Yahoo Finance […]

University of Cincinnati Launching Cryptoeconomics Lab and Cryptocurrency Fund

Thanks to two generous donations, the University of Cincinnati (UC) is launching “a pair of programs focused on cryptocurrency and new financial technologies.” An article by UC News published on June 22 says gifts from longtime supporters Dan Kautz and Woodrow Uible means the university will “create an educational program with the Carl H. Lindner College […]

Ripple’s Brooks Entwistle: ‘Winter Time Is Actually a Fabulous Time To Build Businesses’

Brooks Entwistle, SVP of Global Customer Success and the Managing Director for APAC & MENA at Ripple, talked about “crypto winter” on day two of the week-long 2022 Aspen Ideas Festival (AIF) being held in Aspen, Colorado. Before joining Ripple in March 2021, Entwistle “served as Chief Business Officer International for Uber, responsible for business […]

Bear Market Not Stopping Binance From Investing $500M Into ‘Web3’ Startups

Binance, which is the world’s largest crypto exchange by trading volume, has raised $500 million for a fund that will invest in Web3 despite the current bear market. According to a report by CNBC published on June 1, Binance Labs, the venture capital arm of Binance, has “raised $500 million for its debut start-up fund, […]

Former U.S. Treasurer: ‘Cryptocurrency Is One of the Greatest Wealth Disruptors’

At the recent Future Innovation Summit in Dubai, Rosa “Rosie” Gumataotao Rios, 43rd Treasurer of the United States, and a member of Ripple’s Board of Directors, talked about blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. Rosie Rios’ Background On 18 May 2009, President Obama officially nominated Harvard-educated Rios as the Treasurer of the United States, and was confirmed […]

Binance, FTX, and a16z Backed Game Studio Building NFL’s First NFT-Based Game

On Wednesday (May 25), the National Football League (NFL), NFL Players Association (NFLPA), and next-generation game technology studio Mythical Games today announced a strategic partnership to create “NFL Rivals“. Mythical Games, which is headquartered in Sherman Oaks, California, was launched in November 2018. According to a report by, The founding team at Mythical — […]

Legendary Billionaire Hedge Fund Manager Ray Dalio on Cash, Fiat Currencies, and Crypto

On Tuesday (May 24), legendary billionaire hedge fund manager Ray Dalio, founder, co-chairman, and co-chief investment officer of Bridgewater Associates, was interviewed at Davos 22 by Andrew Ross Sorkin on CNBC’s “Squawk Box”. The 72-year American whose net worth is estimated to be around $22 billion (as of 25 May 2022) created asset management firm Bridgewater Associates from […]

Cardano Creator Thanks Davos 2022 for ‘Being a Walking Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Advertisement’

On Tuesday (May 24), Charles Hoskinson, who is Co-Founder and CEO of IO Global (aka “IOG”, formerly known as “IOHK”), the company responsible for Cardano’s research and development, credited Davos 22 for inadvertently promoting blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. Hoskinson was referring to concerns raised by some prominent members of the crypto community — such as Chinese-Canadian Bitcoin entrepreneur […]

Goldman CEO Is ‘A Real Bull on the Digital Disruption of Financial Infrastructure’

Recently, David Solomon, who is Chairman, CEO, and a member of the Board of Directors of  The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., shared his thoughts on blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies. Solomon made his comments on May 18 during an interview with Andrew Ross Sorkin on CNBC’s “Squawk Box”. When asked how Goldman sees itself gitting into […]

$ADA: IOG’s Head of Product (Identity) Testifies Before California State Senate

Recently, Tony Rose, Head of Product (Identity) at Input Output Global (“IOG”), the company responsible for the development of the Cardano protocol, testified in support of bill SB 1190 before the California Senate Governmental Organization Committee. Rose, who is also a board member at Blockchain Advocacy Coalition, as well as founder and chairman of Proof […]

What is the Blake256r14 Algorithm? Blake256r14 Coin List

Cryptographic hash functions are vital security components of current computers. They form a key part of digital signatures, message authentication codes, and other security protocols. So far, there are four series of cryptographic hash functions generally known as Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA). These are SHA-0 (published in 1993), SHA-1 (published in 1996), SHA-2 (published in […]

Most Read